Wto Market Access Agreement

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Substantial reduction of tariff and non-tariff barriers to market entry is, along with the elimination of discrimination, the WTO`s most important instrument in achieving its overall objectives. Under the WTO, the concept of market access for service providers is provided for in Article XVI of the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS): 2. In sectors where market access commitments are made, measures that a member does not maintain or adopt either on the basis of a regional subdivision or on the basis of its entire territory. , unless otherwise stated in its schedule, are defined as: (e) the determination of content and exploitation and access to the integrated database; Like preferential market access in the area of trade in goods, preferential liberalization of trade in services is also an objective of free trade agreements. Indeed, strengthening the liberalization of trade in services has become, along with trade in goods, an important feature of new-generation free trade agreements. [17] (The concept of a free trade area was originally intended exclusively for trade in goods with the GATT. An agreement with a similar purpose, i.e. improving the liberalization of trade in services, is referred to as the “economic integration agreement” by Article V of the GATS. However, in practice, the term is often used to refer to agreements that do not only concern goods, but also services and even investments.) Under the customs package, WTO members were required to maintain current import access opportunities for tariff products at a level equivalent to that which existed during the 1986-88 reference period. If, during the reference period, this current access was less than 5% of the domestic consumption of the product concerned, it was necessary to open a minimum (additional) access based on the most favoured nation. The aim was to ensure that in 1995, the cumulative current and minimum access opportunities accounted for at least 3% of consumption during the reference period and that they were gradually increased to 5% of this consumption in 2000 (members of industrialized countries) and 2004 (members of developing countries). Market access for imported products in a WTO member`s market may be impeded or restricted in a number of ways. The most common barriers to market access are tariffs, quantitative restrictions, technical requirements, lack of transparency in national trade regulations, unfair application of customs procedures and procedures.

Given their diversity, the rules must be different to regulate these tariff and non-tariff barriers at market entry. [4] The creation of free trade zones is seen as an exception to the most favoured land principle (MFN) in the WTO, since the preferences of the parties to a free trade agreement go exclusively beyond their accession obligations. [11] Although GATT Article XXIV authorizes WTO members to establish free trade agreements or enter into interim agreements necessary for their establishment, there are several conditions relating to free trade zones or interim agreements that lead to the formation of free trade agreements. In accordance with Article XXIV, paragraph 8, paragraph b), of the GATT, “a free trade area is a group of two or more customs territories in which customs duties and other restrictive rules applicable to trade (with the exception of tariffs authorized by Articles XI, XII, XIII, XIV, XV and XX) and other restrictive trade rules are removed, for the most part , for all exchanges between the territories concerned located in the regions of origin of the products originating in these territories.” However, Article 4.2 of the Agriculture Agreement does not prevent the application of non-tariff import restrictions, in accordance with the provisions of the GATT or other WTO agreements applicable to commercial products in general (industry or agriculture).